Skip to Main Content

PRA-470 Library Guide

This is a guide of library resources to accompany the course PRA-470.

APA Citation Style

This following explains the general format of in-text (parenthetical) and reference list citations in the social sciences documentation system of the American Psychological Association (APA). We will also cover a couple of helpful web resources for APA style.

In-Text (Parenthetical) Citation Basics

When you paraphrase or directly quote another author’s work in your paper, APA format requires the use of in-text citations, also called parenthetical citations. These citations include the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source, e.g. (Smith, 2008). When using a direct quotation, the page number is also included (preceded by “p.”), as in the following examples.

Direct quotation with author’s name as part of the narrative:

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Direct quotation with parenthetical citation:

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199).

Paraphrase or summary of information from another author:

 APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).


Reference List Basics

Each source you cite in your paper must be included in your reference list. The reference list should begin on a new page at the end of your essay; label the page “References” centered at the top of the page, and double-space all text. (Please note: all examples shown here are single spaced – be sure to double-space your list!) All citations must be in the hanging indent format, with the first line flush to the left margin and all other lines indented.

Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for up to and including seven authors (e.g. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.). Your reference list should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

Following are examples of the basic citation formats for books, for articles in periodicals, and for websites. To see more examples of citations for different types of resources, you can consult the APA style manual or one of the web resources listed in this guide.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. City, ST: Publisher.

Young, M. A. (1970). Buttons are to push: Developing your child’s creativity. New York, NY: Pitman.

Book Chapters

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Pincus, D., & Guastello, S. J. (2013). Complexity science in the future of behavioral medicine. In J. P. Sturmberg & C. Martin (Eds.), Handbook of systems and complexity in health (pp. 889-909). New York, NY: Springer.

E-Books from online database

 Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Retrieved from http://www.publisherhomepageurl

 Waller, G. A. (2010). The living and the undead: Slaying vampires, exterminating zombies. Retrieved from

 Include only the homepage of the database. Selected e-book collections URLs:

Blackwell Reference:
eBook Collection:
Gale Virtual Reference Library:
Google Books:


Scholarly Journal Articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Janzen, L. A. (2010). The evolution of clinical child neuropsychology. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24(2), 358-360.

Magazine Articles

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), pages.

 Kluger, J. (2007, January 18). The new map of the brain. Time, 169(5), 56.

 Web Pages

 Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

 Bengston, M. (2001, March 30). Schizophrenia and psychosis. Retrieved from


Web Resources for APA Style

Purdue OWL

The Purdue Online Writing Lab provides a comprehensive formatting and style guide for APA format, including examples of citations for books, articles, electronic resources and other non-print sources.

Sample student paper

Purdue OWL also provides a sample student paper written in APA format.


Print Resources for APA Style

In addition to these web resources, the library has a print edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6tEdavailable in the Reference Section (BF76.7.P83 2010b, in-library use only).