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Open Access and Data Sharing Mandates

Learn how to comply with open access and data management and sharing requirements.

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August 2022 OSTP Memo "Ensuring Free, Immediate, and Equitable Access to Federally Funded Research"

In August 2022, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) put out a new memorandum for all federal agencies with any amount of research and development expenditures to update their public access policies for publications and data. The new policies will require publications and supporting data from federally funded research to be made publicly available without an embargo upon time of publication. The policies must be finalized by the end of 2024 and implemented by the end of 2025.

Funding Agencies with Open Access and/or Data Sharing Requirements

Researchers funded by federal agencies with over $100 million in annual research and development funds are required to make their research freely available within one year of publication. Many private organizations and foundations have also adopted similar requirements. Click one of the tabs below to view the guidelines for a specific agency, to find an index of various funder requirements, or to learn more about the history of funder mandates in the U.S.

Funding Agencies with Open Access and/or Data Sharing Requirements

Click one of the links below to jump to the guidelines for that agency.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
Department of Defense (DOD)
Department of Education (DOE)
Department of Energy (DOE)
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Smithsonian Institute (SI)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA)
 


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Open Access Manuscripts
Beginning October 2015, authors must submit their final, peer-reviewed, accepted journal manuscripts to PubMed Central (PMC) within 12 months of publication. 

Data Management and Sharing
To the extent feasible and consistent with applicable law and policy, digitally formatted scientific data resulting from unclassified research supported wholly or in part by Federal funding should be stored and publicly accessible to search, retrieve, and analyze.  Researchers will be required to include a Data Management Plan with their funding applications.


Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR)

Open Access Manuscripts
ASPR will adapt the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy for eligible ASPR-funded research and require that ASPR-funded investigators submit an electronic version of final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts to PubMed Central (PMC) upon acceptance for publication.

Data Management and Sharing
All ASPR-funded researchers will be required to make the data underlying the conclusions of peer-reviewed scientific research publications freely available in public repositories at the time of initial publication in machine readable formats. ASPR will ensure that data management plans include clear plans for sharing research data.


CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Open Access Manuscripts
A CDC-funded author must submit an electronic version of the author's manuscript upon acceptance for publication to the National Institutes of Health Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS) for inclusion in PubMed Central (PMC) within 12 months of the publisher's official date of publication.

Data Management and Sharing
CDC-funded researchers will be required to make the data underlying the conclusions of peer-reviewed scientific research publications freely available in public repositories at publication in machine-readable formats. CDC will ensure data management plans include clear plans for sharing research data.


DHHS: Department of Health and Human Services

Open Access Manuscripts
Please see each individual agency (ACL, AHRQ, ASPR, CDC, FDA, and NIH) for their unique public access plans.


DOD: Department of Defense

Open Access Manuscripts
The Department of Defense will require the final, peer-reviewed manuscript of any publication arising from DoD-funded research to be made publicly available within 12 months of publication in the Defense Technical Information Center (DITC).

Data Management and Sharing
The Department of Defense will require digitally formatted scientific data resulting from DoD funding to be made publicly available, unless release would compromise the ability to file for intellectual property protection on any invention arising from the data.  EERE datasets will be deposited in OpenEI; all other data sets are left to the authors' choice. Authors will need to create Data Management Plans when submitting for funding.


DOE: Department of Education

Open Access Manuscripts
Institute for Education Studies (IES)-funded investigators must electronically submit final, peer-reviewed manuscripts resulting from research supported in whole or in part by IES to the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) upon acceptance for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Data Management and Sharing
IES expects timely release of shared data files following the completion of a research study. In general, IES anticipates that the data will be shared no later than the acceptance of the main findings from the final study dataset in a peer-reviewed scholarly publication and that data will be available for at least 10 years. If researchers believe that full data sharing is not possible, they must provide a written rationale.


DOE: Department of Energy

Open Access Manuscripts
DOE-funded researchers will be required to make their funded research articles openly available within 12 months of publication.  Metadata and abstracts will be hosted in PAGES, with a direct link to the open access version of record on the publisher’s website. In cases where the publisher does not provide public access, PAGES will direct the reader to the accepted manuscript hosted in an institutional repository (i.e. Chapman University Digital Commons) with a link provided by the author. In cases where the full text is not publicly accessible through publisher or institutional repositories, OSTI will host the accepted manuscript, submitted by the author, available through PAGES.

Data Management and Sharing
The new requirements regarding management of digital research data will appear in funding solicitations and invitations issued by the Office of Science beginning Oct. 1, 2014.  Other DOE research offices will implement data management plan requirements within the next year.


DOT: Department of Transportation

Open Access Manuscripts
All final peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication, intramural technical or final reports, and/or Scientific Research project written deliverables (e.g., technical/final reports) that you produce under a DOT contract or grant must be submitted to the National Transportation Library. These publications will be made publicly available after an embargo period of at least 12 (preferably 18) months.

Data Management and Sharing
DOT-funded researchers will be required to submit a data management plan. for approval. The plan must identify a repository for data that is accessible by NTL. Specific requirements have yet to be determined, but may be based on the National Science Foundation (NSF) model.


EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

Data Management and Sharing


FDA: Food and Drug Administration

Open Access Manuscripts
Beginning October 1, 2015, all peer-reviewed articles arising from FDA-funded research must be made freely available to the public in PubMed Central no later than 12 months after publication.  Either the final published article or the final peer-reviewed manuscript will be acceptable.  Article metadata must be made immediately available upon publication.

Data Management and Sharing
Digitally formatted scientific data resulting from unclassified research supported wholly or in part by Federal funding should be stored and publicly accessible to search, retrieve, and analyze, to the extent feasible and consistent with applicable law and policy.  Data management plans will be required in funding applications.


IMLS: Institute of Museum and Library Services

Data Management and Sharing
IMLS is committed to expanding public access to IMLS-funded research, data and other digital products: the assets you create with IMLS funding should be freely and readily available for use and re-use by libraries, archives, museums and the public.


NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Open Access Manuscripts
NASA-funded researchers will be required to make their peer-reviewed publications arising from the research publicly available within 12 months of publication in a NASA-branded portal of PubMed Central. Metadata should be made publicly available as soon as possible after final acceptance of a paper.

Data Management and Sharing
All proposals or project plans submitted to NASA for scientific research funding will be required to include a Data Management Plan (DMP) that describes whether and how data generated through the course of the proposed research will be shared and preserved (including timeframe), or explains why data sharing and/or preservation are not possible or scientifically appropriate.


NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research

Open Access Manuscripts
Beginning in 2009, peer-reviewed research published by NCAR scientists and staff in scientific journals must be made publicly available online through its repository, OpenSky.


NEH: National Endowment for the Humanities

Open Access Manuscripts / Data Management and Sharing
Recipients are expected to publish or otherwise make publicly available the results of work conducted under an award.


NIH: National Institutes of Health

The information below pertains to the NIH policy PRIOR to January 25, 2023. For information on the updated policy taking effect on January 25, 2023, please visit our new NIH 2023 updates page.

Open Access Manuscripts
As of 2008, all researchers funded by the NIH must submit a final, peer-reviewed copy of their research papers to PubMed Central upon acceptance for journal publication, to be made publicly available within 12 months.  Researchers can either submit directly through the NIH Manuscript Submission System or arrange for their publisher to submit on their behalf.

Data Management and Sharing
All investigator-initiated applications with direct costs greater than $500,000 in any single year will be expected to address data sharing in their application. Genome data must be shared regardless of the budget.

 

Links pertaining to manuscript sharing:

Links pertaining to data management and sharing:


NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

Open Access Manuscripts
Authors of peer-reviewed scholarly publications are required to submit to the NIST public access archive system metadata and their copies of final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts once the manuscript is accepted for publication. NIST will also accept the final published version if permitted by the journal.  The final manuscript must be made publicly availabe within 12 months of publication in PubMed Central.

Data Management and Sharing
NIST intends to make freely available to the public, in publicly accessible repositories, all peer-reviewed scholarly publications and associated data arising from unclassified research and programs funded wholly or in part by NIST. Subject to the same conditions and constraints listed above, NIST will also promote the deposit of scientific data arising from unclassified research and programs, funded wholly or in part by NIST, free of charge unless otherwise excepted, in publicly accessible databases within 12 months of publication.

All proposals or plans for activities that will generate scientific data using NIST funding will be required to (1) adhere to a Data Management Plan (DMP) that describes how scientific data generated through the course of the proposed work will be shared and preserved or (2) explain why data sharing and/or preservation are not within the scope of this plan.

Plans are in place to develop an Enterprise Data Inventory and Common Access Platform to facilitate the indexing of publicly available datasets.


NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Data Management and Sharing
All NOAA Grantees must share data produced under NOAA grants and cooperative agreements in a timely fashion, except where limited by law, regulation, policy or security requirements. Grantees must address this requirement formally by preparing a Data Sharing Plan as part of their grant project narrative.


NSF: National Science Foundation

Open Access Manuscripts
As of January 2016, NSF will require that either the version of record or the final accepted peer-reviewed manuscript in peer-reviewed scholarly journals and papers in juried conference proceedings be made publicly available through the NSF Public Access Repository within 12 months of publication. Either the final, peer-reviewed manuscript or the version of record will be acceptable.

Data Management and Sharing
Links to data management requirements and plans relevant to specific Directorates, Offices, Divisions, Programs, or other NSF units, are provided below. If guidance specific to the program is not provided, then the requirements established in the Grant Proposal Guide, Chapter II.C.2.j apply.

Guidelines for specific Directorates, Offices, Divisions, and Programs


SI: Smithsonian Institute

Open Access Manuscripts
Publications resulting from SI funding must be submitted to Smithsonian-managed or -approved repositories within 12 months of publication.  Either the published version or the final, peer-reviewed draft is acceptable.  Implementation will be managed through Smithsonian Research Online (SRO) and Clearinghouse for Open Research of the United States (CHORUS).

Data Management and Sharing
Digital research data supporting publications must be submitted to Smithsonian-managed or -approved repositories. Data may be submitted to SRO or be deposited in an approved external, community-supported or discipline-specific repository, or via CHORUS.  Data management plans are required with funding applications.


USAID: U.S. Agency for International Development

Data Management and Sharing
The DDL is the Agency’s repository of USAID-funded, machine readable data created or collected by the Agency and its implementing partners. Datasets and supporting documentation created or collected directly by USAID Operating Units or under USAID-funded awards must be submitted for inclusion in the DDL. Datasets must be submitted by USAID Operating Units and implementing partners through the DDL Website in accordance with the instructions provided at the site.


USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture

Open Access Manuscripts
The USDA public access policy will require that authors submit all final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts to PubAg once the manuscript is accepted for publication, in order to make them publicly accessible within 12 months of publication. In lieu of the final peer-reviewed manuscript, USDA will accept the final published article, provided the author has the right to submit the published version.

Data Management and Sharing
The USDA data policy is still in development.


USGS: U.S. Geological Survey

Open Access Manuscripts

Research resulting from awards granted in January 2016 or later will be required to archive their works with a recognized archive partner to make their articles publicly accessible in perpetuity. The articles will be discoverable via prominently displayed links on search results on the USGS Publications Warehouse.  Additional details of this plan are forthcoming.

Data Management and Sharing
Beginning February 2015, funding applications must include a data management plan. When approved, the data must be made publicly available under the authority of USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) requirements (SM 502.1).


VA: U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs

Open Access Manuscripts
Investigators must make  all peer-reviewed publications arising from VA-funded research publicly available by depositing final, peer-reviewed manuscripts in PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication. Manuscripts are made available to the public no later than 12 months after publication.

Researchers are also required to notify VHA Research Communications about of any upcoming publications or presentations, upon their acceptance, through the PubTracker system.

Data Management and Sharing

All VA investigators conducting VA-funded research will be required to develop prospective data management plans for that research. The data management plan for VA-funded research must describe how and where data resulting from the research will be made available to the public and must specifically include how any data underlying scientific publications will be made available for discovery, retrieval, and analysis, including which materials will be available in machine readable formats. Investigators will be held accountable for sharing publications and data in accordance with the approved data management plan.

Click one of the links below to jump to the guidelines for that agency.

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
American Heart Association
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation


Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Data Management and Sharing
Formatting and content requirements for formal grant proposals vary according to whether the proposed project is for academic research or for some other activity and according to whether the amount requested is greater than $125,000.

The Information Products Appendix has information on how to create an Information Products Plan, which will include making provisions for data.


American Heart Association

Open Access Manuscripts 
All journal articles resulting from AHA funding should be made freely available in PubMed Central within 12 months of publication.  It will be the responsibility of the author to ensure this occurs.

Data Management and Sharing
The AHA requires grant applicants to include a data sharing plan as part of the application process.  Any research data that is needed for independent verification of research results must be made freely and publicly available in an AHA approved repository within 12 months of the end of the funding period.


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Open Access Manuscripts / Data Management and Sharing
Beginning January 1, 2015, all funded researchers will be required to make their publications and underlying data sets openly available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY 4.0) license within 12 months of publication.  This embargo will no longer be allowed after January 1, 2017.


Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Data Management and Sharing
All data used in or developed in whole or in part by foundation-funded projects (and that can be shared in a manner consistent with applicable laws) must be made widely available and freely shared as soon as possible.  Data management plans are required upon submission.

Indexes of funder requirements


Some history on the move toward Open Access for funded research in the United States

On February 22, 2013, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy issued a mandate requiring all federal agencies with over $100 million in annual research and development funds to develop plans to make their funded research freely publicly available within one year of publication.  This mandate applies both to research articles and data, and will require authors to self-archive their work in OA repositories.

In May 2013, President Obama issued an executive order making openness and machine readability the default standard for government information.

 


Project Open Data

On May 9, 2012, the White House issued a memorandum requiring government agencies to make their data available, discoverable, and usable.  All agencies were required to meet the five initial requirements by November 1, 2013.  Learn more about the Open Data Policy and the tool created to support it, Project Open Data, below.